The word Marma is derived from the sanscrit root "mru”,'marane' and it applies to a place of vital importance in the body which, if injured results in serious consequences or death sooner or later. It is believed that there are 107 marma points in the body.
1. Head and neck
The Human Body
The skeletal system :-is comprised of 206 bones and the strong ligamentous bands which holds them together. The skeleton forms the structural framework of the body, it also serves to protect and support the delicate internal organs such as the brain, heart and lungs. The skeleton makes up about 18% of the weight of the human body.
The spine:-or back bone is the strong supporting column which stretches from the head to the bottom of the back. It has the shoulder bones, ribs and pelvic bones attached to it. The spine is composed of 33 vertebrae, which are joined together by cartilage and ligaments. Each vertebra, except for the coccyx, has a centeral hole through which the spinal cord runs. The 33 vertebrae are divided in to five groups. Starting from the top, they are known as:
7 cervical vertebrae
12 thoracic vertebrae
5 lumbar vertebrae
5 sacral vertebrae--fused in to 1 in adults
4 coccygeal vertebrae--fused in to 1 in adults
In a normal adult, who is standing erect, the spinal column curves slightly in four parts. beginning at the head, it curves slightly forward (cervical curvature ) then in a sweeping curve backward under the shoulders (thoracic curvature ) forward over the haunches (lumbar curvature ) and backward at the end of the spine (pelvic curvature ).
All four spinal curves in the adult lend resilience and spring to the vertebral column, which is essential for walking and jumping. Improper positions may exaggerate the curves of the vertebral column. An increase in the thoracic curve is called kyphosis (rounded shoulders).An exaggerated lumbar curve is called lordosis (swayback).A lateral curvature is called scoliosis (side twist).There are many reasons for these conditions, such as rickets, bad posture, polio etc.
The intervertebral discs:-the spaces between the vertebrae are filled with elastic tissue, which acts as a buffer for impact shock, protecting the spine and spinal cord. The discs begin to lose some of their suppleness around middle age. If a disc ruptures or slips out and presses against an adjacent spinal nerve intense pain is experienced in the back, buttocks and legs.
Treatments are provided for all the above ailments at Agasthyasram.
The spine or back bone, is the strong supporting column which stretches from head to the bottom of the back. It has the shoulder bones, ribs and pelvic bones attached to it. The spine composed of 33 vertebrae in children and 26 in adults. Each vertebra is separated by cartilage disc which provides additional shock absorption to the back. The vertebrae are joined together by ligaments. The back is one of the most important parts of the human body. It is involved in almost every movement the body makes. It is also the most frequently injured part of the body. 95% of all back injuries are caused by a number of factors over a period of time. The risk factors are:
Poor physical condition
Improper body mechanics
According to a study published by the National institute of occupational safety and health, most back injuries occur to adults between the ages of 35 and 45.This is not surprising, but remarkable when you consider what other piece of equipment could still function after nearly 20 years of abuse.
There are preventive measures you can take to reduce the chances of suffering a disabling back injury.
1. Good physical condition, being overweight, especially with a large pot belly, puts more strain on the lower back. Lack of proper exercise causes your back and stomach muscles to lose their strength and flexibility. Proper exercise and a healthy diet help you stay fit.
2. Correct posture, the best standing posture is one that is balanced and maintains the natural curve of the spine. Proper sitting posture includes, maintaining natural curve of the spine, back supported against a chair or lumbar support, feet on the floor, knees slightly higher than the hips.
3. Proper body mechanics, the best way to avoid twisting your upper body is to move your feet or if you need to reach something below mid-thigh level, bend your knees.
4. Proper lifting techniques, stand close to the object, squat down, bending your knees, grab load firmly close to your body, stand up slowly, keeping your back straight, do not twist your upper body, turn with your legs or feet, set the load down slowly, bending your knees and keeping your back straight.
Successful back injury prevention is a full-time commitment both on and off the job. Using the above information you can prevent disabling back disorders from affecting your lifestyle.
The Muscular System
There are over 600 muscles,making up about half of the body weight. muscles make movement possible and keep the body in position by counteracting gravity. There are three types of muscles,tendons and ligaments.
1. Voluntary or striated muscles :- also known as skeletal muscles cover the skeletal framework and are consciously controlled by the individual.They may be attached directly to bones or cartilage or via tendons. They are usually arranged in pairs, one contracts the other relaxes, example the biceps flexes the arm and the triceps extends it.
2. Involuntary muscles :- muscles of the digestive, circulatory, and repiratory systems.
3. Cardiac or heart muscles.
4. Tendons :- a skeletal muscle usually narrows down as a tendon and connect the muscle to the bone.
5. Ligaments :- ligaments bind together bones at the joints. If undue strain is put on the muscles and joints the ligaments may be torn or ruptured.